Vol. 1 No. 3 (2015): Journal of Leadership and Management

Cultural Awareness in Leadership Strategy and Marketing: Applying Hofstede’s Basic Dilemmas to Brazil

Camilla Montoya
Our Lady of the Lake University, USA
Jared A. Montoya
Our Lady of the Lake University, USA
Published May 29, 2015
How to Cite
Montoya, C., & Montoya, J. A. (2015). Cultural Awareness in Leadership Strategy and Marketing: Applying Hofstede’s Basic Dilemmas to Brazil. Journal of Leadership and Management, 1(3). Retrieved from http://leadership.net.pl/JLM/article/view/45


Globalization has inspired scholars to seek knowledge in the field of cultural studies since the mid-1950s. Gert Hofstede collected valuable industry data at IBM in the 1960s, and later collaborated with researchers in China to empirically reveal five basic dilemmas present in every culture: power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-/short-term orientation. Hofstede argued that culture is expressed through a combination of values, symbols, heroes, and rituals. By applying Hofstede’s five initial dimensions of culture to real-life circumstances in Brazil, we demonstrate the gravity of understanding these frameworks in the process of decision-making on a global scale. When ignoring cultural differences, the health of organizations can be compromised. On the other hand, we show that companies such as Coca-Cola have been attentive to cultural differences in consumer behavior and advertising, which has proven to be very lucrative.


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