Vol. 1 No. 3 (2015): Journal of Leadership and Management

Egypt’s Economic Development Constraints Post January 2011 Revolution

Mohammad M. Agwa
Department of Economics, Framingham State University, USA
Published May 29, 2015
How to Cite
Agwa, M. M. (2015). Egypt’s Economic Development Constraints Post January 2011 Revolution. Journal of Leadership and Management, 1(3). Retrieved from http://leadership.net.pl/JLM/article/view/49


In this paper, the author investigated and analyzed the constraints to the Egyptian economic development after the 2011 revolution. Throughout the study the most widely used methodology was based on historical and descriptive approach along with the methodological modeling based on the assumptions of the economic development theory. The relationship between investment and socioeconomic development is analyzed. The study sought to find where socio-economic development policies have been significant and credible, thus to stress the influential role of economic development on economic growth in Egypt. The paper also identifies the effects of policies, adopted by Egyptian governments before and after the revolution.


  1. Agwa, M. (1995). Foreign Economic Assistance Effects on Socio-economic Development. Cairo: ALNAHDA.
  2. Akerlof, G., and Shiller, R. (2009). Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  3. Bernstein, P. (1992). Capital Ideas: the improbable origins of modern Wall Street. New York: Free Press.
  4. Boldizzoni, F. (2008). Means and ends: The idea of capital in the West, 1500-1970. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  5. Central Bank of Egypt (2013). Economic Bulletin and Annual Report Egypt 2013.
  6. Caballero, R.,Engel, E., and J. C. Haltiwanger (1995). Plant Level Adjustment and Aggregate Investment Dynamics. College Park, MD : University of Maryland, Dept. of Economics.
  7. Cummins, J. G., Hassett, K. A., and S. D. Oliner (2006). Investment Behavior, Observable Expectations, and Internal Funds. American Economic Review 96 (3): 796-810.
  8. Daragahi, B. (2013). S&P cuts Egypt’s credit rating again amid fiscal health fears. FT.com (retrieved on July 29, 2013).
  9. Datto, S. (Ed.) (2011). Economics, Making Sense of the Modern Economy. New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons.
  10. Guzzardi, J.. Egypt faces huge problems of overpopulation, poverty. lodinews.com (retrieved on March 25, 2015).
  11. Hassett, K. A., and R. G. Hubbard (2002). Taxes and Business Investment. In A. Auerbach and M. Feldstein (Eds.), Handbook of Public Economics. Vol. 3. New York: Elsevier.
  12. Hennings, K.H. (1987). Capital as a factor of production. The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics V. 1. [S.l.]: [s.n.].
  13. Henry, J. R. (2013). Egypt’s Poverty, Unemployment, Push Youths to Breaking Point. newsmax.com (retrieved on March 25, 2015).
  14. Jorgenson, D. W. (1963). Capital Theory and Investment Behavior. American Economic Review 53 (2): 247-259.
  15. Khalifa, M., DaVanzo J., Adamson D. M. (2000). Population Growth in Egypt – A Continuing Policy Challenge. Santa Monica, Ca.: Rand.
  16. Keynes, J. M. (1936). The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
  17. Krugman, P., and W., Robin (2009). Economics. New York: W. H. Freeman.
  18. Laderchi, Saith and Stewart (2003). Everyone agrees we need poverty reduction, but not what this means: does this matter? Paper for WIDER Conference on Inequality, Poverty and Human Well-being Helsinki, 30-31 May 2003.
  19. McDonald, R. L., and D. R. Siegel (1986). The Value of Waiting to Invest. Quarterly Journal of Economics 101 (1986): 707-727.
  20. EL-Gabalawi N. (2008). Urban poverty in Cairo (Egypt). München GRIN Verlag GmbH.
  21. Abdel-Hameed N. (2007). From Marina to Kom-Ombo: A Note on Poverty in Egypt. Cairo: Cairo University [manuscript].
  22. Poveda, A. C. (2013). The relationship between development, investments, insecurity and social conditions in Colombia: a dynamic approach. Quality and Quantity: International Journal of Methodology 47 (5): 2769-2783.
  23. Saleh, A. (2009). Government: Poverty rate up 2%. Egypt Independent (retrieved on March 25, 2015).
  24. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2012.
  25. World Bank (2013). Egypt Overview, worldbank.org.