Vol. 1 No. 3 (2015): Journal of Leadership and Management
Articles

Gender, Gender Role Identity and Values Among Korean Men and Women: Implications for Leadership

Ayse Banu Goktan
Department of Business, School of Business, University of North Texas at Dallas, USA
Hyung Rok Yim
Division of Business Administration, Hanyang University, South Korea
Vishal K. Gupta
School of Management, Binghamton University – State University of New York, USA
Published May 29, 2015
How to Cite
Goktan, A. B., Yim, H. R., & Gupta, V. K. (2015). Gender, Gender Role Identity and Values Among Korean Men and Women: Implications for Leadership. Journal of Leadership and Management, 1(3). Retrieved from http://leadership.net.pl/JLM/article/view/53

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between gender, gender role identity and value priorities among Korean men and women. We found that gender was significantly related to self enhancement values but not to self-transcendence values. Gender role identity (i.e. masculine versus feminine values), on the other hand, was significantly related to conservation values, but not to openness to change, and moderated the relationship between gender and self-enhancement values. Implications of these findings for leadership research and practice are discussed.

References

  1. References
  2. Agarwal, R., Sarkar, M. and Echambadi, R. (2002). The conditioning effect of time on firm survival: an industry life cycle approach. Academy of Management Journal 5: 971-994.
  3. Arrindell, W. A., Eisemann, M., Richter, J., Oei, T. S., Caballo, V. E., van der Ende, J., and Hatzichristou, C. (2003). Masculinity–femininity as a national characteristic and its relationship with national agoraphobic fear levels: Fodor’s sex role hypothesis revitalized. Behaviour Research and Therapy 41: 795-807.
  4. Attar-Schwartz, S., and Ben-Arieh, A. (2012). Political knowledge, attitudes and values among Palestinian and Jewish youth in Israel: The role of nationality, gender and religiosity. Children and Youth Services Review 34 (4): 704-712.
  5. Aygun, Z. K., and Imamoglu, E. O. (2002). Value domains of Turkish adults and university students. Journal of Social Psychology 14: 333-351.
  6. Banu Goktan, A. A., and Saatçıoğlu, Ö. Y. (2011). The Effect of Cultural Values on Pay Preferences: A Comparative Study in Turkey and the United States. International Journal of Management 28 (1): 173-184.
  7. Bem, S. L. (1981). Bem Sex-Role Inventory: professional manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  8. Brescoll, V. L., Uhlmann, E. L., Moss-Racusin, C., and Sarnell,
  9. L. (2012). Masculinity, status, and subordination: Why working for
  10. a gender stereotype violator causes men to lose status. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (1): 354-357.
  11. Bristor, J. M., and Fischer, E. (1993). Feminist thought: Implications for consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research March: 518-536.
  12. Bruni, A., Gherardi, S., and Poggio, B. (2004). Doing gender, doing entrepreneurship: An ethnographic account of intertwined practices. Gender, Work and Organization 11 (4): 406-429.
  13. Carter, N., and Williams, M. (2003). Comparing social feminism and liberal feminism. In J. Butler (Ed.), New perspectives on women entrepreneurs. Greenwich, CT: IAP.
  14. Cohen, A. (2009). Individual values and the work/family interface: An examination of high tech employees in Israel. Journal of Managerial Psychology 24 (8): 814-832.
  15. Cohen, J., and Cohen, P. (1983). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlational Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  16. Dorfman, P. W., and Howell, J. P. (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Advances in International Comparative Management 3: 127-150.
  17. Drogendijk, R., and Slangen, A. (2006). Hofstede, Schwartz, or managerial perceptions? The effects of different cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational enterprises. International Business Review 15: 361-380
  18. Egan, S. K., and Perry, D. G. (2001). Gender role identity: A multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology 37: 451-463.
  19. Ely, R. (1995). The power of demography: Women’s social constructions of gender role identity at work. Academy of Management Journal 38: 589-635.
  20. Fischer, E. M., Reuber, A. R., and Dyke, L. S. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing 8 (2): 151-168.
  21. Greve, H. R. (2003). A behavioral theory of RandD expenditures and innovations: evidence from shipbuilding. Academy of Management Journal 46 (6): 685-702.
  22. Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., and Sikdar, A. (2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33 (2): 397-417.
  23. Harris, A. (1994). Ethnicity as a determinant of sex role identity:
  24. A replication study of item selection for the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Sex Roles, 31: 241-273.
  25. Hinz, A., Albani, C., Gießler, A., and Brähler, E. (2002). Welche Werte sind den Deutschen etwas wert? Ergebnisse einer repra¨sentativen Umfrage [Which values matter to Germans? Results of a representative survey]. Psychosozial, 25: 21–30.
  26. Hoffman, D. (1995). Blurred genders: The cultural construction of male and female in South Korea. Korean Studies, 19: 112-138.
  27. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
  28. Hyun, K. J. (2001). Sociocultural change and traditional values: Confucian values among Koreans and Korean Americans. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25: 203-229
  29. Inmyxai, S. and Takahashi, Y. (2009). Further evidence of the performance contrast between male and female firms in MSMEs in Lao PDR. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 3: 64−82.
  30. Jaari, A. (2004). Self-esteem, sense of coherence, and values [in Finnish]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
  31. Jacobs, J. E., and Eccles, J. S. (1992). The impact of mothers’ gender-role stereotypic beliefs on mothers’ and children’s ability perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63: 932–944.
  32. Keller, L., Bouchard, T., Arvey, R., Segal, N., and Dawes, R. (1992). Work values: Genetic and environmental influences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77: 79–88.
  33. Kendall, L. (1984). Korean shamanism: Women’s rites and a Chinese comparison. In G. A. DeVos, and T. Sofue (Eds.), Religion and the family in East Asia (pp. 57-73). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  34. Kim, K., and Lowry, D. (2005). Television Commercials as a Lagging Social Indicator: Gender Role Stereotypes in Korean Television Advertising. Sex Roles, 53(11/12): 901-910.
  35. Kluckhohn, F. R., and Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
  36. Knafo, A., and Schwartz, S. H. (2001). Value socialization in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32: 213–228.
  37. Knafo, A., and Spinath, F. M. (2011). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Girls’ and Boys’ Gender-Typed and Gender-Neutral Values. Developmental Psychology, 47(3): 726-731.
  38. Lee, K. T. (1983). The structure of Korean consciousness, Korean series (1). Seoul, Korea: Sinwon Moonwhasa (in Korean).
  39. Lewin, K. (1935). A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  40. Lindeman, M., and Verkasalo, M. (2005). Measuring Values With the Short Schwartz’s Value Survey, Journal of Personality Assessment 85: 170-178.
  41. Lorber, J. (1994). Paradoxes of gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  42. Luthat, H. K., and Luthar, V. K. (2007). A Theoretical Framework Explaining Cross-Cultural Sexual Harassment: Integrating Hofstede and Schwartz. Journal Of Labor Research 28 (1): 169-188.
  43. Maccoby, E. E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology 28: 1006--1017.
  44. Malach-Pines, A., and D. Schwartz (2007). Now you see them, now you don’t: gender differences in entrepreneurship. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23(7): 811-832.
  45. Meglino, B. M., and Ravlin, E. C. (1998). Individual Values in Organizations: Concepts, Controversies, and Research. Journal of Management 24 (3): 351-389.
  46. Mueller, S. L., and Dato-On, M. C., (2008). Gender-role orientation as a determinant of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 13 (1): 3-20.
  47. Neubert, M. J., and Taggar, S., (2004). Pathways to informal leadership: The moderating role of gender on the relationship of individual differences and team member network centrality to informal leadership emergence. Leadership Quarterly 15: 175-194.
  48. Park, I., and Cho, L. (1995). Confucianism and the Korean family. Special issue: Families in Asia: Beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 26 (1): 117-134.
  49. Person, E., and Ovesey, L. (1983). Psychoanalytic theories of gender and identity. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 22 (2): 103-226.
  50. Pohjanheimo, E. (1997). Value change, work and social stratification. A study of work-aged people in Pyhtää 1982-1993 [in Finnish]. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
  51. Prince-Gibson, E., and S. H. Schwartz, (1998). Value priorities and gender. Social Psychology Quarterly 61 (1): 49.
  52. Puohiniemi, M. (2002). Values, attitudes, and the picture of the time [in Finnish]. Vantaa, Finland: Linor.
  53. Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T. A. (2008). Organizational Behavior, 13 Ed. Prentice Hall.
  54. Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press.
  55. Ryckman, R. M., and Houston, D. M. (2003). Value priorities in American and British female and male university students. Journal of Social Psychology 143: 127-138.
  56. Schönpflug, U. (2008). Cultural transmission: Developmental, psychological, social, and methodological perspectives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  57. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (25): 1-65. New York: Academic Press.
  58. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universals in the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues, 50: 19-45.
  59. Schwartz, S. H., and Rubel, T. (2005). Sex differences in value priorities: Cross-cultural and multi-method studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89: 1010-1028.
  60. Schwartz, S. H., and Rubel-Lifschitz (2009). Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences 7 in values: Effects of gender equality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97 (8): 171-185.
  61. Sherif, C. W. (1982). Needed concepts in the study of gender role identity. Psychology of Women Quarterly 6 (4): 375-398.
  62. Shin, K., Yang, J., and Edwards, C. E. (2010). Gender role identity among Korean and American college students: Links to gender and academic achievement. Social Behavior And Personality 38 (2): 267-272.
  63. Silfver, M. (2007). Gender differences in value priorities, guilt, and shame Among Finnish and Peruvian adolescents. Sex Roles 56 (9/10): 601-609.
  64. Slote, W., and De Vos, G. (Eds.) (1998). Confucianism and the family. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  65. Snyder, M., Miene, P. (1994). On the functions of stereotypes and prejudices. In M.P. Zanna and J. M. Olson (Eds.), The psychology of prejudice: The Ontario symposium. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  66. Spence, J. T. (1984). Masculinity, femininity and gender-related traits: A conceptual analysis and critique of current research. In
  67. B. A. Maher and W. B. Maher (Eds.), Progress in experimental personality research, vol. XIII. New York: Academic Press.
  68. Sultana, A. M. (2011). Measuring Gender Role Identity and Awareness among Women Towards Their Right in Family. Australian Journal Of Basic and Applied Sciences 5 (6): 1558-1562.
  69. Van Maanen, J. and Schein, E. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In: Staw, B. (Ed.) Research in Organizational Behavior 1: 209-264.
  70. Verkasalo, M., Tuomivaara, P., and Lindeman, M. (1996). 15-year-old pupils’ and their teachers’ values, and their beliefs about the values of an ideal pupil. Educational Psychology 1: 35-47.
  71. Waller, N. G., Kojetin, B. A., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken, D. T., and Tellegen, A. (1990). Genetic and environmental influences on religious interests, attitudes, and values: A study of twins reared apart and together. Psychological Science 1: 138-142.
  72. West, C. and Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society 1: 125-151.
  73. Williams, J. E., and Best, D. L. (1990). Sex and psyche: Gender and self viewed cross-culturally. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  74. Williams, J.E. and Best, D. L. (1982). Measuring Sex Stereotypes. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
  75. Zhang, J., Norvilitis, J. M., and Jin, S. (2001). Measuring gender orientation with the Bem Sex Role Inventory in Chinese culture. Sex Roles 44: 237-251.