Affective Well-Being and Counterproductive Behavior in Healthcare Housekeepers
In a study of two samples, (a group of healthcare housekeepers and a group of non-housekeeper healthcare employees), counterproductive work behavior was found to be greater for the housekeepers. This sample reported not being likely to experience strong emotions, thereby calling into question the assumption that negative affect is related to deviance at work. This study makes several contributions including: (1) suggesting that stigmatized groups may become emotionally immune to negative stereotypes; (2) identifying a relationship between emotio- nal apathy and counterproductive work behaviors; and (3) suggesting that dirty work roles engage in counterproductive work behaviors uniquely based on particular job duties. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: dirty work, counterproductive work behavior, affective well-being, stigma
-2011 Occupational Employment and Wages. (2015). Bureau of La- bor Statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/ oes372011.htm.
Ashforth, B. E., and G. E. Kreiner. (1999). “‘How Can You Do It?’: Dirty Work and the Challenge of Constructing a Positive Identity.” Academy of Management Review, 24, pp. 413–434.
Ashforth, B. E., and G. E. Kreiner. (2002). “Normalizing Emotions in Organizations: Making the Ordinary Seem Extraordinary.” Human Resource Management Review,12, pp. 215–235.
Ashforth, B. E., M. Joshi, V. Anand, and A. M. O’Leary-Kelly. (2013). “Extending the Expanded Model of Organizational Identification to Occupations.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, pp. 2426– 2448.
Ashforth, B. E., G. E. Kreiner, M. A. Clark, and M. Fugate. (2007). “Normalizing Dirty Work: Managerial Tactics for Countering Oc- cupational Taint. Academy of Management Journal, 50, pp. 149–174.
Atkinson, R., and J. Flint. (2001). “Accessing Hidden and Hard-to- Reach Populations: Snowball Research Strategies.” Social Research Update, 33, pp. 1–4.
Bolton, S. C. (2005). “Women’s Work, Dirty Work: The Gynecology Nurse as ‘Other’.” Gender, Work and Organization, 12, pp. 169–186.
Browne, K. (2005). “Snowball Sampling: Using Social Networks to Research Non-Heterosexual Women.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8, pp. 47–60.
Bruk-Lee, V., and P. E. Spector. (2006). “The Social Stressors-Coun- terproductive Work Behaviors Link: Are Conflicts with Supervisors and Coworkers the Same?” Journal of Occupational Health Psycholo- gy, 11, pp. 145–156.
Cahill, S. E. (1999). “Emotional Capital and Professional Socializa- tion: The Case of Mortuary Science Students (and Me).” Social Psy- chology Quarterly, 62, pp. 101–116.
Cardador, M. T., E. Dane, and M. G. Pratt. (2011). “Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational In- strumentality.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, pp. 367–378.
Chidaushe, S. (2006). “Ashforth and Kreiner’s How Can You Do It? Dirty Work and the Challenge of Constructing a Positive Identity: A Critical Analysis.” unpublished manuscript.
demographics, and other variables that might be charac- teristic of dirty workers.
In this study, we found that role (housekeepers ver- sus non-housekeepers) was related to emotional apathy and counterproductive work behaviors. This paper is one of the first to our knowledge that examines this specific group of employees in relation to emotional well-being and counterproductive work behaviors. Furthermore, it presents interesting findings that negative emotions need not be related to counterproductive work behavior. Like- wise, it suggests that unique dirty work roles might engage in counterproductive work behaviors differently if they ex- perience stigmas. Furthermore, this paper examines how stigmas, stereotypes, and dirty work might be related to af- fective well-being and counterproductive work behaviors through an empirical survey-based approach.
Dalal, R. S. (2005). “A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, pp. 1251–1255.
Daniels, K. (2000). “Measures of Five Aspects of Affective Well-Be- ing at Work.” Human Relations, 53, pp. 275–294.
Dick, P. (2005). “Dirty Work Designations: How Police Officers Ac- count for Their Use of Coercive Force. ” Human Relations, 58, pp. 1363–1390.
Dua, J. K. (1994). “Job Stressors and Their Effects on Physical Health, Emotional Health and Job Satisfaction in a University.” Journal of Ed- ucational Administration, 32, pp. 59–78.
Fox, S., P. E. Spector, and D. Miles. (2001). “Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in Response to Job Stressors and Organizational Justice: Some Mediator and Moderator Tests for Autonomy and Emotions.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, pp. 291–309.
Frank, O. and T. Snijders. (1994). “Estimating the Size of Hidden Populations Using Snowball Sampling.” Journal of Official Statistics, 10, pp. 53–67.
Hatfield, E., J. T. Cacioppo, and R. L. Rapson. (1994). Emotional Con- tagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, T. E. (2010). “Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: How Clinicians Make (or Avoid) Moral Judgments of Patients: Im- plications of the Evidence.” https://peh-med.biomedcentral.com/arti- cles/10.1186/1747-5341-5-11.
Hughes, E. (1958). Men and Their Work. New York: Glencoe/Free Press.
Jervis, L. L. (2001). “The Pollution of Incontinence and the Dirty Work of Caregiving in a U.S. Nursing Home.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 15, pp. 84–99.
Johnson, M. D., F. P. Morgeson, D. R. Ilgen, C. J. Meyer, and J. W. Lloyd. (2006). “Multiple Professional Identities: Examining Differ- ences in Identification Across Work-Related Targets.” Journal of Ap- plied Psychology, 91, pp. 498–506.
Kreiner, G. E., B. E. Ashforth, and D. M. Sluss. (2006). “Identity Dynamics in Occupational Dirty Work: Integrating Social identity and System Justification Perspectives.” Organization Science, 17, pp. 619–636.
Litera, N. (2009). “What Do You Do for a Living?: The Intersections of Dirty Work, Identity, and Identification.” ETD collection for Pur- due University.
Meyer, J. P. and N. J. Allen. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Miles, D. E., W. E. Borman, P. E. Spector, and S. Fox. (2002). “Build- ing an Integrative Model of Extra Role Work Behaviors: A Compar- ison of Counterproductive Work Behavior with Organizational Citi- zenship Behavior.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, pp. 51–57.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
OSH Answers Fact Sheets. (2007). Canadian Centre for Occupation- al Health and Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.ccohs.ca/oshan- swers/occup_workplace/hotel_housekeeping.html.
Posner, J., J. A. Russel, and B. S. Peterson. (2005). “The Circumplex Model of Affect: An Integrative Approach to Affective Neuroscience, Cognitive Development, and Psychopathology.” Development and Psychopathy, 17, pp. 715–734.
Rafaeli, A. and R. I. Sutton. (1989). “The Expression of Emotion in Organizational Life.” Research in Organizational Behavior, 11, pp. 1–42.
Robinson, S. L. and R. J. Bennet. (1995). “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study.” Academy of Management Journal, 38, pp. 555–572.
Sadler, G. R., H-C. Lee, R. S-W. Lim, and J. Fullerton. (2010). “Re- cruitment of Hard-to-Reach Population Subgroups via Adaptations of the Snowball Sampling Strategy.” Nursing and Health Sciences, 12, pp. 369–374.
Sanders, C. R. (2010). “Working Out Back: The Veterinary Techni- cian and ‘Dirty Work’.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39, pp. 243–272.
Sercu, C., R. A. Ayala, and P. Bracke. (2015). “How Does Stigma In- fluence Mental Health Nursing Identities? An Ethnographic Study of the Meaning of Stigma for Nursing Role Identities in Two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals.” International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52, pp. 307–316.
Spector, P. E. and S. Fox. (2005). The Stressor-Emotion Model of Coun- terproductive Work Behavior, in: S. Fox, and P. E. Spector, (eds.). (2005). Counterproductive Work Behavior: Investigations of Actors and Targets. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 151–174.
Spector, P. E., S. Fox, L. M. Penney, K. Bruursema, A. Goh, and S. Kessler. (2006). “The Dimensionality of Counterproductivity: Are All Counterproductive Behaviors Created Equal?” Journal of Voca- tional Behavior, 68, pp. 446–460.
Hospital Housekeepers: Job Description and Education Requirements. (2016). Study.com. Retrieved from: http://study.com/articles/ Hospital_Housekeeper_Job_Description_and_Education_ Requirements.html.
Tracy, S. J. (2004). “The Construction of Correctional Officers: Layers of Emotionality Behind Bars.” Qualitative Inquiry, 10, pp. 509–533.
Uncu, Y., N. Bayram, and N. Bilgel. (2007). “Job Related Affective Well-Being Among Primary Health Care Physicians.” European Jour- nal of Public Health, 17, pp. 514–519.
van Katwyk, P. T., S. Fox, P. E. Spector, and E. K. Kelloway. (2000). “Using the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS) to Investi- gate Affective Responses to Work Stressors.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, pp. 219–230.
Zuberi, D. M. and M. B. Ptashnick. (2011). “The Deleterious Con- sequences of Privatization and Outsourcing for Hospital Support Work: The Experiences of Contracted-out Hospital Cleaners and Dietary Aids in Vancouver, Canada.” Social Science and Medicine, 72, pp. 907–911.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Author & JLM