Self-Leadership and Action-State Orientation The Role of Vertical and Horizontal Individualism

Ana L. Kazan, Kevin Knotts, Jeffery D. Houghton, Christopher P. Neck


Two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between self-leadership and action-state orientations. Study 1 applied confirmatory factor analyses to data from a U.S. sample to examine the discriminant validity between the two constructs. Results indicate that self-leader- ship and action-state orientation are indeed two separate constructs. Study 2 advanced and tested hypotheses examining the roles of horizon- tal and vertical individualism in moderating the relationship between self-leadership and action-state orientation. Analyses of data from 154 Brazilian subjects provide support for the hypothesized relationship between self-leadership and action-state orientation. Furthermore, the results provide support for the role of horizontal individualism as a moderator of the self-leadership to action-state orientation relationship. The implications of the findings of this study are discussed along with directions for future research.

Keywords: self-leadership, action-state orientation, vertical individualism, horizontal individualism

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