Neoliberalism, Participatory Theory, and Leadership of Self-Governing Teams On the Expansion of Participatory Theory Indicators
The notion that the key to social emancipation is through collectivism’s equality or neoliberalism’s individual liberty has proven to be illusory. In reality both utopian theories have culminated in the aggregation of power and wealth within an elite, minority population. The neoliberal capitalist system has created a hyperpatrimonial society and a hypermeritocratic society. Leadership within the United States’ neoliberal economic system has created material conditions of growing inequalities of wealth, income, and opportunity for the majority population. Participatory theorists argue that organizations with leadership of self-governing teams, such as worker cooperatives, reduce inequality and increase freedom. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the presence or absence of key indicators of participatory theory and neoliberalism in selected worker cooperatives. The conclusions of the meta-analysis suggest that participatory theory indicators in wor- ker cooperatives’ ideology, workers’ materialization, and customers’ discourse are more pervasive than neoliberal indicators. The framework synthesis derived from the primary data analysis can inform the organizational practices of worker cooperatives and other socially oriented organizations in creating a more democratic and just workplace.
Keywords: participatory theory, worker cooperative, justice, leadership, self-governing teams, neoliberalism, hypermeritocracy
Abell, H. (2014). Worker Cooperatives: Pathways to Scale. Takoma Park: The Democracy Collaborative.
Abercrombie, N., S. Hill, and B. S. Turner. (1986). Sovereign Individ- uals of Capitalism. London: Allen and Unwin.
Ackoff, R. L. (2008). Our Changing Concept of the Corporation, in: A. J. Zakhiem, D. E. Zakhem, A. J., D. E. Palmer, and M. L. Stoll (eds.). (2008). Stakeholder Theory. Amherst: Prometheus Books.
Adams, S. J. (1965). Inequity in Social Exchange. In L. Berkowtiz (ed.). (1965). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, v. 2. New York: Academic Press, pp. 267–299.
Alaimo, S., and S. Hekman, S. (2008). Introduction, in: S. Alaimo, and S. Hekman (eds.). (2008). Material Feminisms. Bloomington: Indi- ana University Press, pp. 1–22.
Albert, M. (1993). Capitalism Against Capitalism. London: Whur.
Alperovitz, G. (2013). What Then Must We Do? Straight Talk About the Next American Revolution. White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Bachrach, P. (1992). Power and Empowerment: A Radical Theory of Participatory Democracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Bagdikian, B. H. (2004). The New Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press.
Barry, B. (1991). “Is Democracy Special?” in: Democracy and Power: Essays in Political Theory 1. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
Barry, B. (2012). Why Social Justice Matters. Malden: Polity Press.
Beyer, B. (2012). “Blending Constructs and Concepts: Development of Emerging Theories of Organizational Leadership and Their Re- lationship to Leadership Practices for Social justice.” International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 7(3), pp. 1–12.
Bies, R. J. (2001). Interactional (in)justice: The sacred and the pro- fane. In J. S. Greenberg, & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in organi- zational justice (pp. 89-118). Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books
Blackmore. (1989). Educational Leadership: A Feminist Critique and Reconstruction, in: J. Smyth (ed.). (1989). Critical Perspectives on Ed- ucational Leadership. London: Falmer, pp. 93–129.
Blasi, J., R. B. Freeman, and D. L. Kruse. (2014). The Citizen’s Share: Reducing Inequality in the 21st Century. London: Yale University Press.
Bondarenko, D. M. (2007). “What is There in a Word? Heterarchy, Homoarchy, and the Difference in Understanding ‘Complexity’ in the Social Sciences and Complexity Studies.” Explorations in Com- plexity Thinking: Pre-Proceedings of the 3rd Internatoinal Workshop on Complexity and Philosophy. Stellenbosch, South Africa, pp. 35–47.
Bondarenko, D. M., L. E. Grinin, and A. V. Korotayev. (2002). “Al- ternative Paths of Social Evolution.” Social Evolution & History, 1(1), pp. 54–79.
Bowles, S., and H. Gintis. (1986). Democracy and Capitalism: Prop- erty, Community, and the Contradictions of Modern Social Thought. New York: Basic Books.
Brockner, J., and B. M. Wiesenfeld. (1996). “An Integrative Frame- work for Explaining Reactions to Decisions: Interactive Effects of Outcomes and Procedures.” Psychological Bulletin, 120(2), pp. 189– 208.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
C. D. Bugre, and R. A. Baron. (2001). “Perceptions of Systemic Jus- tice: The Effects of Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Jus- tice.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), pp. 324–339.
Center for Cooperatives. (2012). What is a Co-op? Retrieved from: http://www.uwcc.wisc.edu/whatisacoop/.
Cohen-Charash, Y., and P. E. Spector. (2001). “The Role of Justice in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis”. Organizational Behavior and Hu- man Decision Processes, 86, pp. 278–321.
Collective Copies. (n.d.). About: Collective Copies. Retrieved from: http://www.collectivecopies.com/about/about.htm.
Colquitt, J. A., J. Greenberg, and C. P. Zapata-Phelan. (2005). What is Organizational Justice? A Historical Overview, in: Handbook of Orga- nizational Justice. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 3–58.
Corcoran, H., and D. Wilson. (2010). The Worker Co-operative Move- ments in Italy, Mondragon and France: Context, Success Factors and Lessons. Kentville: Canadian Worker Cooperative Federation.
Cornwell, J. (2012). “Worker Co-operatives and Spaces of Possibili- ty: An Investiation of Subject Space at Collecive Copies.” Antipode, 44(3), pp. 725–744.
Corson, D. (1996). Emancipatory Discursive Practices, in: K. Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson, P. Hallinger, and A. Hart (eds.). (1996). International Handbook of Educational Leaders and Administration. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 1043– 1067.
Cropanzano, R., C. A. Prehar, and P. Y. Chen. (2002). “Using Social Exchange Theory to Distinguish Procedural from Interactional Jus- tice.” Group Organization Management, 27, pp. 324–351.
Cropanzano, R., D. E. Bowen, and S. W. Gilliland. (2007). “The Man- agement of Organizational Justice.” Academy of Management Per- spective, 21(4), pp. 34–48.
Deci, E. L., and R. M. Ryan. (2008). “Self-Determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Develoment, and Health.” Canadian Psychology, 49(3), pp. 182–185.
Deller, S., A. Hoyt, B. Hueth, and R. Sundaram-Stukel. (2009). Re- search on the Economic Impact of Cooperatives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives.
Dowding, K., R. E. Goodin, and C. Pateman. (2004). Introduction, in: K. Dowding, R. E. Goodin, and C. Pateman (eds.). (2004). Justice & Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–24
Dworkin, M., and M. Young. (Directors). (2013). ShiftChange [Mo- tion Picture].
Equal Exchange web site. (n.d.). About. Retrieved from: http://equal- exchange.coop/about.
Erhenreich, R. M., and C. L. Crumley. (1995). Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies. Washington: American Anthropolog- ical Association.
Foucault, M. (1977). Power/Knowledge. New York: Random House. Friedrich, C. J. (1955). “The Political Thought of Neo-Liberalism.”
American Political Science Review, 49(2), pp. 509–525.
Gilens, M. (2005). “Inequality and Democratic Responsiveness.”
Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(5), pp. 778–796.
Gilens, M., and B. I. Page. (2014). “Testing Theories of American Pol- itics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens.” Perspectives on Politics, 12(3), pp. 564–581.
Goldman, B. M. (2003). “The Application of Referent Cognitions Theory to Legal-Claiming by Terminated Workers: The Role of Organizational Justice and Anger.” Journal of Management, 29(5), pp. 705–728.
Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: International.
Gregory, P. R., and R. C. Stuart. (2003). Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Gupta, C. (2014). “The Co-operative Model as a ‘Living Experiment in Democracy’.” Journal of Co-operative Organization and Manage- ment, 2, pp. 98–107.
Hackman, R. J. (2002). Leading Teams: Setting the Stage for Great Per- formances. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Hahnel, R. (2012). Of the People, by the People: The Case for a Partic- ipatory Economy. United Kingdom: Soapbox.
Hall, P. A., and D. Soskice (eds.). (2001). Varieties of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hannes, K., and C. Lockwood. (2012). Synthesizing Qualitative Re- search: Choosing the Right Approach. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Harris, B. W., and K. P. Manz, F. Shipper, and C. C. Manz. (2012). Equal Exchange: Doing Well by Doing Good. Aspen: The Aspen Insti- tute: Center for Business Education.
Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hirschmann, N. (2007). Gender, Class, and Freedom in Modern Polit- ical Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
International Cooperative Alliance. (2005-2014a). What is a Co-op- erative? Retrieved from: http://ica.coop/en/what-co-operative.
Jackall, R. (1984). “Paradoxes of Collective Work: A Study of the Cheeseboard Factory.” Worker Cooperatives in America, pp. 109–135.
Jost, J. T., and A. C. Kay. (2010). Social Justice: History, Theory, and Research, in: Handbook of Social Psychology, New York: Wiley, John & Sons, pp. 1122–1165.
Kaler, J. (2003). “Differentiating Stakeholder Theories.” Journal of Business Ethics, 46(1), pp. 71–83.
Kasmir, S. (1996). The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Kasmir, S. (2008). “Stickin’ to the Union: Worker Ownership from a Working Class Perspective.” Anthropology of Work Review, 12(1), pp. 8–12.
Kaufman, C. (2012). Getting Past Capitalism: History, Vision, Hope. New York: Lexington Books.
Kruse, D. L., R. B. Freeman, and J. R. Blasi (eds.). (2010). Shared Capitalism at Work: Employee Ownership, Profit and Gain Sharing, and Broad-Based Stock Options. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
Leventhal, G. S. (1980). What Should be Done with Equity Theory? New Approaches to the Study of Justice in Social Relationships, in: K. Gergen (ed.). (1980). Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Re- search. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 27–55.
Leventhal, G. S., J. J. Karuza, and W. R. Fry. (1980). Beyond Justice: A Theory of Allocation Preferences, in: G. Mikula (ed.). (1980). Jus- tice and Social Interaction: Experimental and Theoretical Contribu- tions, from Psychological Research. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 167–218.
Levine, D., and L. D. Tyson. (1990). Participation, Productivity and the Firm’s Environment, in: A. Blinder (ed.). (1990). Paying for Pro- ductivity: A Look at the Evidence. Washington: Brookings Institute, pp. 205–214.
Manz, C., and J. H. Sims. (1995). Business Without Bosses; How Self-Managing Teams Are Building High-Performance Companies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Marx, K., and F. Engels. (1967). The Communist Manifesto. London: Washington Square Press.
MBO Partners. (2015). State of Independence in America. Herndon: MBO Partners.
McKnight, J., and P. Block. (2012). The Abundant Community: Awak- ening the Power of Families and Neighborhoods. San Francisco: Ber- rett-Koehler Publishers.
Meyers, J. (2011). Employee Ownership, Democratic Control, and Work-Class Empowerment, in: E. J. Carberry (ed.). (2011). Employee Ownership and Shared Capitalism: New Directions in Research. Itha- ca: ILR Press, pp. 113–146.
Owen, R. (1991). A New View of Society and Other Writings. New York: Penguin Group.
Padgam, J. (2002). Worker Cooperatives. Unviersity of Wisconsin. Madison: Center for Cooperatives.
Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Paterson, B. L., S. E. Thorne, C. Canam, and C. Jillings. (2001). Me- ta-Study of Qualitative Health Research: A Practical Guide to Me- ta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Peters, M. A. (2001). Poststructuralism, Marxism, and Neoliberalism. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Piketty, T., and E. Saez. (2007). “How Progressive is the U.S. Federal Tax Sytem? A Historical and International Perspective.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(1), pp. 3–24.
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Moti- vates Us. New York: Riverhead Books.
Pleasant, L. (2014). “Worker-Owned Co-ops Get $1 Million in NYC Spending.” Yes! Retrieved from: http://www.yesmagazine.org/com- monomics/worker-owned-co-ops-get-one-million-dollars-in-new- york-budget?utm_source=YTW&utm_medium=Email&utm_cam- paign=20140627.
Polanyi, K. (1944). The Great Transformation: The Political and Eco- nomic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.
Randleman, R. (2016). Neoliberalism, Participatory Theory, and Leadership of Self-Governing Teams, in: A. Szpaderski, and C. P. Neck (eds.). (2016). Leadership and Management: Emerging, Contempo- rary, and Unorthodox Perspectives. Douglassville: HPL Publications, Inc., pp. 313–350.
Robertson, J. (2013). Coffee Lover’s Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAEKbJelwJg.
Robinson, N. (2013). Economy: There Is No Alternative (TINA) is Back. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-poli- tics-21703018.
Rothschild, J., and A. J. Whitt. (1986). The Cooperative Workplace: Potentials and Dilemmas of Organizational Democracy and Partici- pation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sanandaji, N. (2012). The Surprising Ingreients of Swedish Success: Free Markets and Social Cohesion. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Shonfeld, A. (1965). Modern Capitalism. New York: Oxford Univer- sity Press.
Simons, H. C. (1941). “For a Free Market Liberalism.” University of Chicago Law Review, 8(2), pp. 202–214.
Skarlicki, D. P., and R. Folger. (1997). “Retaliation in the Workplace: The Roles of Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Justice.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, pp. 434–443.
Stedman Jones, D. (2012). Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Stiglitz, J. (2012). The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
Strauss, G. (2006). “Worker Participation–Some Under-Considered Isues.” Industrial Relations, 45(4), pp. 778–803.
The Cheese Board Collective. (n.d.). About. Retrieved from: http:// cheeseboardcollective.coop/about-us/about-main/.
Trading Economics. (2014). Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/germany/unemployment-rate.
Tyler, T. (2011). “Procedural Justice Shapes Evaluations of Income Inequality: Commentary on Norton and Arielly”. Perspectives on Psy- chological Science, 6(1), pp. 15–16.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2014). Publications for Coopera- tives. Retrieved from: https://www.rd.usda.gov/publications/publi- cations-cooperatives.
Van den Bos, K. (2005). What is Responsible for the Fair Process Ef- fect? in: J. Greenberg, and J. A. Colquitt (eds.). (2005). Handbook of Organizational Justice. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Pub- lishers, pp. 273–300.
Wageman, R., and C. Fisher. (2014). Who’s in Charge Here? The Team Leadership Implications of Authority, in: D. V. Day (ed.). (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations. New York: Ox- ford University Press, pp. 455–481.
Wilkinson, R., and K. Pickett. (2010). The Spirit Level: Why Greater
Witt, U. (2002). “Germany’s ‘Social Market Economy’: Between Social Ethos and Rent Seeking”. The Independent Review, 8(3), pp. 365–375.
Wolff, R. (2012). Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism. Chica- go: Haymarket Books.
YCharts. (2014). Top 10 stocks for 2015. Retrieved from: http:// ycharts.com/companies/INTC/shares_outstanding.
Zeuli, K. A., and R. Cropp. (2004). Cooperatives: Principles and Prac- tices in the 21st Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2019 Author & JLM