Authoritarian Leaders. Cultivate the Followers they Deserve The Effect of Leadership Style on Decision Making

Simon A. Moss, Elise Sharpley, Samuel G. Wilson

Abstract


Recently, many scholars have championed the benefits of intuition on complex tasks, but have not uncovered the conditions under which intuition thrives. Furthermore, some research challenges the merits of intuition. Arguably, conditions or leaders that provoke negative emotions may impair intuition. To assess this possibility, 90 participants received 48 unique descriptions about 4 offices in sequence. Their task was to decide which office to choose. Before they completed this task, their capacity to regulate emotions was assessed. Furthermore, embedded in the instructions was information that primed the schema of either an authoritarian or collaborative leader. If exposed to authoritarian primes, participants were not as likely to choose the best office – the only office with a majority of positive attributes – unless they reported an ability to regulate their emotions rapidly. Accordingly, supportive leaders may be able to enhance the intuition and decision making of employees.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acker, F. (2008). New findings on unconscious versus conscious thought in decision making: additional empirical data and meta-analysis. Judgment and Decision Making 3: 292-303.

Amabile, T.M., Schatzel, E.A., Moneta G.B., and S.J. Kramer (2004). Leader behaviors and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support. The Leadership Quarterly 15: 5-32.

Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.

Baumann, N., and J. Kuhl (2005). How to resist temptation: the effects of external control versus autonomy support on self-regulatory dynamics. Journal of Personality 73: 443-470.

Betsch, T., Plessner, H., Schwieren, C., and R. Gütig, (2001). I like it but I don’t know why: A value-account approach to implicit attitude formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27: 242-253.

Bolte, A., Goschke, T., and J. Kuhl, (2003). Emotion and intuition: Effects of positive and negative mood on implicit judgments of semantic coherence. Psychological Science 14: 416-421.

Bos, M.W., Dijksterhuis, A., and R.B. van Baaren (2008). On the goal-dependency of unconscious thought. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44: 1114-1120

Bowers, K.S., Regehr, G., Balthazard, C., and K. Parker (1990). Intuition in the context of discovery. Cognitive Psychology 22: 72-110.

Cheng, B.S., Chou, L.F., Wu, T.Y., Huang, M.P., and J.L. Farh (2004). Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: Establishing

a leadership model in Chinese organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 7: 89-117.

Davidson, J.E. (1995). The suddenness of insight. In R.J. Sternberg and J.E. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of insight. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87: 586-598.

Dijksterhuis, A., and T. Meurs (2006). Where creativity resides: The generative power of unconscious thought. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal 15: 135-146.

Dijksterhuis, A., and L.F. Nordgren (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science 1: 95-109.

Dijksterhuis, A., and Z. van Olden (2006). On the benefits of thinking unconsciously: Unconscious thought can increase post-choice satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42: 627-631.

Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M.W., Nordgren, L.F., and R.B. van Baaren (2006). On making the right choice: the deliberation-without-attention effect. Science 311: 1005-1007.

Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M.W., van der Leij, A. and R.B. van Baaren (2009). Predicting soccer matches after unconscious and conscious thought as

a function of expertise. Psychological Science 20: 1381-1387.

Damian, R.I., and J.W. Sherman (2013). A process-dissociation examination of the cognitive processes underlying unconscious thought. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49: 228-237. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.10.018.

Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist 49: 709-724.

Farh, J.L., and B.S. Cheng (2000). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In J.T. Li, A.S. Tsui, and E. Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in the Chinese context. London: MacMillan.

Fraser, S.L., and R.G. Lord (1988). Stimulus prototypically and general leadership impressions: Their role in leadership and behavioral ratings. Journal of Psychology 122: 291-303.

Galinsky, A.D., Gruenfeld, D.H., and J.C. Magee (2003). From power to action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85: 453-466.

Gardner, H., and R. Nemirovsky (1991). From private intuitions to public symbol systems: An examination of the creative process in Georg Cantor and Sigmund Freud. Creativity Research Journal 4, 1-21.

Halberstadt, J., and J. Green (2008). Carryover effects of analytic thought on preference quality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44, 1199-1203.

Heilman, M.E., Hornstein, H.A., Cage, J.H., and J.K. Herschlag (1984). Reactions to prescribed leader behavior as a function of role perspective: The case of the Vroom-Yetton model. Journal of Applied Psychology 69: 50-60.

Hodgkinson, G.P., Langan-Fox, J., and E. Sadler-Smith (2008). Intuition: a fundamental bridging construct in the behavioural sciences. British Journal of Psychology 99: 1-27.

Hogarth, R.M. (2001). Educating intuition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Huizenga, H.M., Wetzels, R., van Ravenzwaaij, D., and E. Wagenmakers (2012). Four empirical tests of Unconscious Thought Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 117: 332-340. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.11.010.

Isen, A.M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalgleish and M.J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion. England: John Wiley and Sons.

Koole, S.L., and N.B. Jostmann (2004). Getting a grip on your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87: 974-990.

Kuhl, J. (1994). Action versus state orientation: Psychometric properties of the Action Control Scale (ACS-90). In J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation. Seattle: Hogrefe Huber

Kuhl, J. (2000). A functional-design approach to motivation and self-regulation: The dynamics of personality systems interactions. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich and M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Larson, M. (2008). Analysis of Variance. Circulation 117: 115-121.

Lazarsfeld, P., and N. Henry (1968). Latent structure analysis. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Lee, L., Amir, O., and D. Ariely (2009). In search of homo economicus: Cognitive noise and the role of emotion in preference consistency. Journal of Consumer Research 36: 173-187.

Newell, B.R., Wong, K.Y., Cheung, J.C.H., and T. Rakow (2009). Think, blink or sleep on it? The impact of modes of thought on complex decision making. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 62: 707-732.

Nordgren, L.F., and A. Dijksterhuis (2009). The devil is in the deliberation: Thinking too much reduces preference consistency. Journal of Consumer Research 36: 39-46.

Pham, M.T., Lee, L., and A.T. Stephen (2012). Feeling the future: The emotional oracle effect. Journal of Consumer Research 39: 461-477.

Policastro, E. (1995). Creative intuition: An integrative review. Creativity Research Journal 8: 99-113.

Quirin, M., Kazen, M., and Kuhl, J. (2009). When nonsense sounds happy or helpless: The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97: 500-516.

Schwarz, N., and G. Clore (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45: 513-523.

Shamir, B. (1992). Attribution of influence and charisma to the leader: The Romance of Leadership revisited. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22: 386-407.

Sloman, S.A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin 119: 3-22.

Stanovich, K.E., and West, R.F. (1998). Individual differences in rational thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 127: 161-188.

Tsui, A.S., Wang, H., Xin, K., Zhang, L.H., and P.P. Fu (2004). “Let a thousand flowers bloom”: Variation of leadership styles among Chinese CEOs. Organizational Dynamics 33: 5-20.

Van Vugt, M., Jepson, S.F., Hart, C.M., and D. De Cremer, (2004). Autocratic leadership in social dilemmas: A threat to group stability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40: 1-13.

de Vries, M., Holland, R.W., and Witteman, C.L.M. (2009). Fitting decisions: Mood and intuitive versus deliberative decision strategies. Cognition and Emotion 22, 931-943.

Watson, D., Clark, L.A., and A. Tellegen (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47: 1063-1070.

Wilson, T.D., and J. Schooler (1991). Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60: 181-192.

Zhong, C., Dijksterhuis, A., and Galinsky, A.D. (2008). The merits of unconscious thought in creativity. Psychological Science 19: 912-918.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2014 Author & JLM