Vol. 2 No. 4 (2015): Journal of Leadership and Management

The Work of Associations: A Hidden Dimension of All Managerial Hierarchies (Bureaucracies)

Sergey Ivanov
Associate Professor, School of Business and Public Administration, University of the District of Columbia, 4200 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008, USA e-mail: sivanov@udc.edu
Published June 26, 2015
How to Cite
Ivanov, S. (2015). The Work of Associations: A Hidden Dimension of All Managerial Hierarchies (Bureaucracies). Journal of Leadership and Management, 2(4). Retrieved from http://leadership.net.pl/JLM/article/view/66


In this paper, I discuss a hidden and largely unknown organizational structure present within all bureaucratic organizations. Nowadays, it is an assumed fact that most organizations are hierarchical, such as corporations, government organizations, military, universities, and other types. They are hierarchical in terms that there are managers managing their subordinates. Conducting organizational studies in large corporations, United States Federal Government, military, and other institutions, I discovered that all bureaucracies, fundamentally, are not strictly hierarchical. Jaques (Jaques, 1976; 1996; 2002) discussed associations as one of the fundamental types of all organizations. In his general theory of managerial hierarchy, Jaques explained that associations formed hierarchical organizations. He then proceeded to describe the structures of these hierarchical organizations as strict hierarchies. Applying Jaques’ methods in my organizational studies, I discovered associations within the hierarchical structures that Jaques thought could only reside outside of the hierarchical systems. Thus, in this paper, I modify the general theory of managerial hierarchy, and reevaluate the general structure of all organizations, unmasking special associations within all organizational structures of bureaucracies.


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